September, 20th saw a high rank visit from the German Bundestag at SVA Potsdam in the course of the “ZUSE-TAG REGIONAL” event. Please read the full article (in German only) here.
The ship overall length is 75 m with a moulded breadth of 17 m at a design draught of 5 m. It must be emphasized that ATAIR will be the first seagoing LNG driven ship of the German Federal Administration. The propeller has to fulfill the Silent-R classification requirements of DNV GL and was developed by SVA Potsdam. Both cavitation tests and pressure pulse measurements showed that the propeller design will meet these requirements.
The new ATAIR will replace the 30 years old precursor ship and will be put into service in 2020.
The services and the quality of our company have an impact on the successful business activities of our customers. Since 1995, SVA Potsdam GmbH has been following an ISO DIN EN 9001 certified quality management system.
Once again this year, DNV GL Business Assurance Zertifizierung & Umweltgutachter GmbH approved the successful application of our QM system to research, development and services in the area of hydrodynamics. The certificate can be viewed here.
Our company also operates as a DIN EN ISO/IEC 17025 certified test laboratory (DAkkS certificate No. D-PL-15182-01-00). The certification covers the measurement of moving and non-moving objects in steady and unsteady water flows, the measurement of forces, moments and rotational speeds of rotating objects in water and fixed objects subjected to a water flow. The expertise of the test laboratory for this kind of measurements were once again approved by Deutsche Akkreditierungsstelle (DAkkS) in November 2017.
This year, the 112th plenary meeting of the Schiffbautechnische Gesellschaft e.V. (STG, The German Society for Maritime Technology) took place from 22nd to 24th November 2017 in Potsdam, Germany. The meeting started with the time-honoured Georg Weinblum Commemoration Lecture at the Schiffbau-Versuchsanstalt Potsdam GmbH (SVA). The lecture on „Development of CFD Methods for Industrial Ship Flow Applications” was given by Prof. Takanori Hino (Yokohama National University).
In the course of the framework programme a guided tour through the SVA facilities could be taken, which attracted many of the participants. Selected areas of SVA were shown: model and propeller manufacturing, model outfitting, the Towing Tank, Cavitation Tunnel and the Friction Measurement Test Stand.
The frictional resistance of a one-sided wetted flat plate is well known from semi-empirical investigations. There are several formulas for laminar and turbulent flow, developed by e.g. Blasius, Prandtl, Schönherr, Schlichting/Gersten, etc. For Schlichting/Gersten also the roughness of the surface is included, but when dealing with complex surface structures a mere roughness consideration is not enough.
In this case, measurements as with SVAtech’s friction tunnel are still meaningful for providing reliable results in an easy way. Put simply, the friction tunnel is a small water circuit tank in which plates with the coating to be investigated can be installed. Therefore two of these plates form a narrow rectangular channel for which the wall shear stress inside can be derived from the pressure loss between several observation points. In SVAtech’s friction tunnel 12 equidistant positions over the length of the test plates are used for measuring the pressure drop. Finally, the friction coefficient is obtained by dividing the wall shear stress by the dynamic pressure.
The friction tunnel was developed in 1992 at the Research Institute for Hydraulic Engineering and Shipbuilding (Versuchsanstalt für Wasserbau und Schiffbau) in Berlin and was property of the Technical University from Berlin for a long time until in 2004 SVA bought it. To reach the high accuracy demands of the customers several modifications were necessary. The test section was extended to 12 pressure sensors and a venting valve for each pressure sensor to ensure that no air bubbles are trapped inside the circuit. A magnetic inductive flow meter helps determining the water velocity in the test section. There is a choice of two different flow meters (one covering the small and one the high water speed ranges). Furthermore, 2 temperature sensors were installed to determine the water properties like density and viscosity. A microprocessor automatically runs the engine control of the pump and conducts the calculation of the fitted pressure gradient and friction coefficient. The data is transferred to a computer where the final evaluation is done.
The test procedure is fully automated in such a way that the whole speed range from 1 m/s up to 18 m/s (or respectively log(Re) = 5.4 up to 6.7) is measured in 26 steps three times. For each step there is a waiting time of 60 s for the stabilization of the flow and finally 15 s of measurement time. In the end the mean value curve of all three runs is calculated.
The usual way to present the results of friction measurements is in dependency of the Reynolds number. The challenge is to make the channel flow comparable with a flow around a body as for ship applications. The solution is to determine experimentally the reference length for the calculation of the Reynolds number in such a way that it equals a flow around a body. With the resulting reference length (which is almost the channel perimeter) a good accordance with the ITTC’57 curve is reached for technically smooth plates.
For textures a presentation over s+ can be more meaningful than the Reynolds number. The s+ value is the dimensionless characteristic length for one structure element, e.g. for riblet structures it is the distance of two riblets.
Different measurements were carried out. Good results were achieved with the former anti-fouling spray “Biotard”. For a wide range of Reynolds numbers the friction coefficient is slightly lower than that of the smooth plate. A bigger effect is visible when using riblets which – in a defined s+ range – can cause a significant reduction of the friction. During the investigations of riblet structures the idea came up to test “simple” riblets made by hand with sandpaper and a belt grind. The resulting structure is similar to the perfect riblet structure. The maximum friction reduction is not as big as for the perfect riblets but the Reynolds number range is wider for which the friction is lower than that of a smooth plate.
But it must not be forgotten that not only the “fresh” coating has to be investigated. It is also important to test the long term qualification after several months of operation. SVAtech simulates this in cooperation with the Laboratory LimnoMar where the test plates are exposed to the North Sea for a certain period of time. After this time the plates are tested again in the friction tunnel.
In summary, the friction tunnel provides friction characteristics of different coatings and textures in an easy and cheap way. The real surface and not only a model of it can be measured over a wide range of Reynolds number. A quick answer regarding the drag reduction and hence fuel savings can be given. The measurements are applicable for a wide field not only in the shipbuilding industry but also for the aerospace or automotive industry.
Author: M. Sc. Rhena Klose, Schiffbau-Versuchsanstalt Potsdam GmbH
The full text can be found in:
R. Klose, R. Schulze: Friction Measurements of Different Coatings in a Friction Tunnel, Proceedings 2nd Hull Performance & Insight Conference, 2017
Two Frahm tanks and a box tank were designed for testing on the roll system. The experimental program included measurements with sinusoidal excitation, variation of the frequency, roll amplitude, and the fill level of the tank. Differing variants of internals within the tanks were taken into account. The evaluation of the measurements was supported by video recordings and the use of ultrasound probes.
The laboratory tests were carried out in the towing tank with specially designed Frahm and Box tanks with variation of metacentric height, wave height, wave length as well as the sea state in regular and irregular seas. In order to ensure defined boundary conditions for the validation, the tests were carried out in beam seas without any speed.
For further evaluation of the laboratory tests and process development, RANSE calculations were performed for selected cases.
The starting point for the method to be developed was the Morison equation, which was expanded with respect to the parts of a developed vortex system proportional to speed and acceleration. As a result, coefficients of resistance and damping are supplied which then are corrected with empirical formulas depending on the obstruction in the tanks. In the further development, shallow water equations were used, which were extended for the developed non-linear parts. These equations formed the basis for subsequent non-linear tank calculations using the nonlinear strip method ROLF. To this end, the ROLF method was extended with additional tools for tank calculation, which distinguishes it from the STRIP method (linear strip method form the software system UTHLANDE). Extensive simulations were carried out using the new method and were compared with the results of the laboratory tests for their validation.
Extensive validation and comparison with previous methods show that the implementation of the new method in ROLF allows a fast and efficient prediction of the roll damping effect of the tank, especially in the case of large roll amplitudes. For the first time, and in contrast to the STRIP method, effects of parametric roll excitation of ships with roll damping tanks can also be determined. The use of the method for projects in the shipbuilding industry is therefore sensible in areas where minimal roll movements of the ship during operation are important even in extreme seas to minimize the risks to crew and ship. In addition to passenger ships and yachts, the future market is being seen in applications for offshore industrial projects. These include work boats and supply vessels for wind power and offshore installations, where it must be possible to come alongside and land in strong sea states. Lastly and importantly, the use of the procedure contributes to advances in ship safety.
Author: Dr.-Ing. Matthias Fröhlich, Schiffbau-Versuchsanstalt Potsdam GmbH